Further reading


Drug-resistant tuberculosis

  • Falzon D, Gandhi N, Migliori GB, et al. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on MDR-TB outcomes. Eur Respir J 2013; 42: 156–168.
  • Migliori GB, Besozzi G, Girardi E, et al. Clinical and operational value of the extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis definition. Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 623–626.
  • Nathanson E, Nunn P, Uplekar M, et al. MDR tuberculosis – critical steps for prevention and control. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 1050–1058.
  • World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. WHO/HTM/TB/2008.402. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008. whqlibdoc. who.int/publications/2008/9789241547581_eng.pdf


  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 1005–1015.
  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Use of Interferon-γ Release Assays in Support of TB Diagnosis. Stockholm, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2011. ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/publications/1103_gui_igra.pdf

Clinical management

  • Falzon D, Jaramillo E, Schünemann HJ, et al. WHO guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis: 2011 update. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 516–528.
  • Harries AD, Zachariah R, Corbett EL, et al. The HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic – when will we act? Lancet 2010; 375: 1906–1919.
  • Migliori GB, Zellweger JP, Abubakar I, et al. European Union standards for tuberculosis care. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 807–819.
  • Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance. International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). 2nd Edn. The Hague, Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance, 2009. www.istcweb.org/documents/ISTC_Report_2ndEd_Nov2009.pdf
  • World Health Organization. Treatment of Tuberculosis Guidelines. 4th Edn. WHO/ HTM/TB/2009.420. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010. whqlibdoc.who.int/ publications/2010/9789241547833_eng.pdf

Public health management

  • Broekmans JF, Migliori GB, Rieder HL, et al. European framework for tuberculosis control and elimination in countries with a low incidence. Recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Working Group. Eur Respir J 2002; 19: 765–775.
  • Lienhardt C, Glaziou P, Uplekar M, et al. Global tuberculosis control: lessons learnt and future prospects. Nat Rev Microbiol 2012; 10: 407–416.
  • McShane H. Tuberculosis vaccines: beyond bacille Calmette-Guérin. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011; 366: 2782–2789.
  • Raviglione MC, Uplekar MW. WHO’s new Stop TB Strategy. Lancet 2006; 367: 952–955.
  • World Health Organization. The Global MDR-TB and XDR-TB Response Plan 2007–2008. WHO/HTM/TB/2007.387. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007. www.who.int/tb/ publications/2007/global_response_plan.pdf
  • World Health Organization, Stop TB Partnership. An International Roadmap for Tuberculosis Research. Geneva, 2011. www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/resources/publications/ technical/tbresearchroadmap.pdf

Nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases

  • Andrejak C, Thomsen VO, Johansen IS, et al. Nontuberculous pulmonary mycobacteriosis in Denmark: incidence and prognostic factors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181: 514–521.
  • Daley CL, Griffith DE. Pulmonary non-tuberculous infections. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2010; 14: 665–671.
  • Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 175: 367–416.
  • Henry MT, Inamdar L, O’Riordain D, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-HIV patients: epidemiology, treatment and response. Eur Respir J 2004; 23: 741–746.
  • Reuss AM, Wiese-Posselt M, Weissmann B, et al. Incidence rate of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent children: a prospective nationwide surveillance study in Germany. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009; 28: 642–644.
  • van Ingen J, Bendien SA, de Lange WC, et al. Clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated in the Nijmegen-Arnhem region, The Netherlands. Thorax 2009; 64: 502–506.

See the entire Tuberculosis Chapter