Further reading



  • Jansson SA, Lindberg A, Ericsson A, et al. Cost differences for COPD with and without physician-diagnosis. COPD 2005; 2: 427–434.
  • Masa JF, Sobradillo V, Villasante C, et al. Costes de la EPOC en España. Estimación a partir de un estudio epidemiológico poblacional. [Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain. Estimation from a population-based study.] Arch Bronconeumol 2004; 40: 72–79.
  • Jansson SA, Backman H, Rönmark E, et al. Costs of COPD by disease severity. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: Suppl. 55, A2957.
  • de Miguel Diez J, Carrasco Garrido P, García Carballo M, et al. Determinants and predictors of the cost of COPD in primary care: a Spanish perspective. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2008; 3: 701–712.
  • Tynan AJ, Lane SJ. COPD: illness severity, resource utilisation and cost. Ir Med J 2005; 98: 41–45.
  • Nowak D, Dietrich ES, Oberender P, et al. Krankheitskosten von COPD in Deutschland. [Cost-of-illness study for the treatment of COPD in Germany.] Pneumologie 2004; 58: 837–844.
  • Detournay B, Pribil C, Fournier M, et al. The SCOPE study: health-care consumption related to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in France. Value Health 2004; 7: 168–174.
  • Dal Negro RW, Tognella S, Tosatto R, et al. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Italy: the SIRIO study (social impact of respiratory integrated outcomes). Respir Med 2008; 102: 92–101.
  • Fletcher MJ, Upton J, Taylor-Fishwick J, et al. COPD uncovered: an international survey on the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] on a working age population. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 612.
  • Bilde L, Rud Svenning A, Dollerup J, et al. The cost of treating patients with COPD in Denmark–a population study of COPD patients compared with non-COPD controls. Respir Med 2007; 101: 539–546.
  • Hoogendoorn M. Economic impact of COPD. Empirical and model-based studies on the cost-effectivness of treatment options. PhD thesis. Erasmus Universiteit Amsterdam, 2011.
  • Nielsen R, Johannessen A, Benediktsdottir B, et al. Present and future costs of COPD in Iceland and Norway: results from the BOLD study. Eur Respir J 2009; 34: 850–857.


  • Dal Negro RW, Tognella S, Tosatto R, et al. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Italy: the SIRIO study (social impact of respiratory integrated outcomes). Respir Med 2008; 102: 92–101.
  • Jansson SA, Rönmark E, Forsberg B, et al. The economic consequences of asthma among adults in Sweden. Respir Med 2007; 101: 2263–2270.
  • Martínez-Moragón E, Serra-Batllés J, De Diego A, et al. Coste económico del paciente asmático en España (estudio AsmaCost). [Economic cost of treating the patient with asthma in Spain: the AsmaCost study.] Arch Bronconeumol 2009; 45: 481–486.
  • Schwenkglenks M, Lowy A, Anderhub H, et al. Costs of asthma in a cohort of Swiss adults: associations with exacerbation status and severity. Value Health 2003; 6: 75–83.
  • Van Ganse E, Laforest L, Pietri G, et al. Persistent asthma: disease control, resource utilisation and direct costs. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 260–267.
  • Godard P, Chanez P, Siraudin L, et al. Costs of asthma are correlated with severity: a 1-yr prospective study. Eur Respir J 2002; 19: 61–67.
  • Schramm B, Ehlken B, Smala A, et al. Cost of illness of atopic asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis in Germany: 1-yr retrospective study. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 116–122.
  • Herjavecz I, Nagy GB, Gyurkovits K, et al. Cost, morbidity, and control of asthma in Hungary: The Hunair Study. J Asthma 2003; 40: 673–681.
  • Kiivet RA, Kaur I, Lang A, et al. Costs of asthma treatment in Estonia. Eur J Public Health 2001; 11: 89–92.
  • Accordini S, Corsico AG, Braggion M, et al. The cost of persistent asthma in Europe: an international population-based study in adults. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013; 160: 93–101.
  • International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The Global Asthma Report 2011. www.globalasthmareport.org

Lung cancer

  • Chouaïd C, Moliner L, Combescure C, et al. Economics of the clinical management of lung cancer in France: an analysis using a Markov model. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 397–402.
  • Dedes KJ, Szucs TD, Bodis S, et al. Management and costs of treating lung cancer patients in a university hospital. Pharmacoeconomics 2004; 22: 435–444.


  • • Diel R, Vandeputte J, de Vries G, et al. Costs of tuberculosis disease in the EU – a systematic analysis and cost calculation. Eur Respir J 2013; [In press DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00079413].


  • Bartolomé M, Almirall J, Morera J, et al. A population-based study of the costs of care for community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2004; 23: 610–616.
  • Bauer TT, Welte T, Ernen C, et al. Cost analyses of community-acquired pneumonia from the hospital perspective. Chest 2005; 128: 2238–2246.


  • Jennum P, Kjellberg J. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing: a controlled national study. Thorax 2011; 66: 560–566.
  • Leger D, Bayon V, Laaban JP, et al. Impact of sleep apnea on economics. Sleep Med Rev 2012; 16: 455–462.
  • Al Ghanim N, Commondore VR, Fleetham J, et al. The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea. Lung 2008; 186: 7–12.

Cystic fibrosis

  • Huot L, Durieu I, Bourdy S, et al. Evolution of costs of care for cystic fibrosis patients after clinical guidelines implementation in a French network. J Cyst Fibros 2008; 7: 403–408.
  • Baumann U, Stocklossa C, Greiner W, et al. Cost of care and clinical condition in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients. J Cystic Fibros 2003; 2: 84–90.
  • Sims EJ, Mugford M, Clark A, et al. Economic implications of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: a cost of illness retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2007; 369: 1187–1195.

See the entire Economic Burden of Lung Disease Chapter