Further reading


  • Hedner J, Grote L, Bonsignore M, et al. The European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA): report from 22 European sleep laboratories. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 635–642.
  • Jennum P, Kjellberg J. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing: a controlled national study. Thorax 2011; 66: 560–566.
  • Leger D, Bayon V, Laaban JP, et al. Impact of sleep apnea on economics. Sleep Med Rev 2012; 16: 455–462.
  • McNicholas WT, Bonsignore MR, eds. Sleep Apnoea. Eur Respir Monogr 2010; 50.
  • Riha RL. Clinical assessment of the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Ther Adv Respir Dis 2010; 4: 83–91.
  • Riha RL, Gislasson T, Diefenbach K. The phenotype and genotype of adult obstructive sleepapnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 646–655.
  • Sjösten N, Vahtera J, Salo P, et al. Increased risk of lost workdays prior to the diagnosis ofsleep apnea. Chest 2009; 136: 130–136.


  • Duran J, Esnaola S, Rubio R, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea and related clinical features in a population-based sample of subjects aged 30 to 70 yr. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 685–689.
  • Jennum P, Riha RL. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep- disordered breathing. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 907–914.


  • Brevi BC, Toma L, Magri AS, et al. Use of the mandibular distraction technique to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011; 69: 566–571.
  • Mar J, Rueda JR, Durán-Cantolla J, et al. The cost-effectiveness of nCPAP treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 515–522.
  • McDaid C, Griffin S, Weatherly H, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure devices for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome: a systematic review and economic analysis. Health Technol Assess 2009; 13: 1–274.
  • Parati G, Lombardi C, Hedner J. Position paper on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: joint recommendations by the European Society of Hypertension, by the European Respiratory Society and by the members of European COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on obstructive sleep apnea. J Hypertens 2012; 30: 633–646.
  • Tsuiki S, Kobayashi M, Namba K, et al. Optimal positive airway pressure predicts oral appliance response to sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 1098–1105.
  • Weatherly HL, Griffin SC, Mc Daid C, et al. An economic analysis of continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2009; 25: 26–34.


  • Alonderis A, Barbé F, Bonsignore M, et al. Medico-legal implications of sleep apnoea syndrome: driving license regulations in Europe. Sleep Med 2008; 9: 362–375.
  • Rodenstein D, Cost-B26 Action on Sleep Apnoea Syndrome. Driving in Europe: the need of a common policy for drivers with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. J Sleep Res 2008; 17: 281–284.

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

  • Borel JC, Borel AL, Monneret D, et al. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: from sleep- disordered breathing to systemic comorbidities and the need to offer combined treatment strategies. Respirology 2012; 17: 601–610.

See the entire Sleep breathing disorders Chapter