Further reading


  • Adhikari NK, RA Fowler RA, Bhagwanjee S, et al. Critical care and the global burden of critical illness in adults. Lancet 2010; 376: 1339–1346.
  • Nava S, Sturani C, Hartl S, et al. End-of-life decision-making in respiratory intermediate care units: a European survey. Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 156–164.
  • Offenstadt G, Moreno R, Palomar M, et al. Intensive care medicine in Europe. Crit Care Clin 2006; 22: 425–432.
  • Perez d’Empaire PA, Kajdacsy-Balla Amaral AC. Year in review 2011: critical care - resource management. Crit Care 2012; 16: 244.
  • Rhodes A, Ferdinande P, Flaatten H, et al. The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38: 1647–1653.
  • Van Aken H, Mellin-Olsen J, Pelosi P. Intensive care medicine: a multidisciplinary approach Eur J Anaesthesiol 2011; 28: 313–315.
  • Wunsch H, Angus DC, Harrison DA, et al. Variation in critical care services across North America and Western Europe. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 2787–2793.

Respiratory intermediate care units and weaning units

  • Ambrosino N, Venturelli E, Vagheggini G, et al. Rehabilitation, weaning and physical therapy strategies in chronic critically ill patients. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 487–492.
  • Corrado A, Roussos C, Ambrosino N, et al. Respiratory intermediate care units: a European survey. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 1343–1350.
  • Lone NI, Walsh TS. Prolonged mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: epidemiology, outcomes and modelling the potential cost consequences of establishing a regional weaning unit. Crit Care 2011; 15: R102.
  • Pilcher DV, Bailey MJ, Treacher DF, et al. Outcomes, cost and long term survival of patients referred to a regional weaning centre. Thorax 2005; 60: 187–192.
  • Scala R. Respiratory high-dependency care units for the burden of acute respiratory failure. Eur J Intern Med 2012; 23: 302–308.

Home mechanical ventilation

  • Farre R, Lloyd-Owen SJ, Ambrosino N, et al. Quality control of equipment in home mechanical ventilation: a European survey. Eur Respir J 2005; 26: 86–94.
  • Heinemann F, Budweiser S, Jörres RA, et al. The role of non-invasive home mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring prolonged weaning. Respirology 2011; 16: 1273–1280.
  • Lloyd-Owen SJ, Donaldson GC, Ambrosino N, et al. Patterns of home mechanical ventilation use in Europe: results from the Eurovent survey. Eur Respir J 2005; 25: 1025–1031.

Extracorporeal ventilation

  • Kluge S, Braune SA, Engel M, et al. Avoiding invasive mechanical ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in patients failing noninvasive ventilation. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38: 1632–1639.
  • Zanella A, Scaravilli V, Grasselli G, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In : Ferrer M, Pelosi P, eds. New Developments in Mechanical Ventilation. Eur Respir Monogr 2012; 55: 133–141.

Education in intensive care medicine

  • Artigas A, Pelosi P, Dellweg D, et al. Respiratory critical care HERMES syllabus: defining competencies for respiratory doctors. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 1294–1297.
  • Artigas A, Vassilakopoulos T, Brochard L, et al. Respiratory Critical Care HERMES: a European core syllabus in respiratory critical care medicine. Breathe 2012; 8: 217–229.
  • Buckley JD, Addrizzo-Harris DJ, Clay AS, et al. Multisociety task force recommendations of competencies in pulmonary and critical care medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 180: 290–295.
  • European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. CoBaTrICE: in international Competency Based Training programme in Intensive Care medicine. www.cobatrice.org/en/index.asp
  • Pastores SM, O’Connor MF, Kleinpell RM, et al. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour new standards: history, changes, and impact on staffing of intensive care units. Crit Care Med 2011; 39: 2540–2549.
  • Whereat SE, McLean AS. Survey of the current status of teaching intensive care medicine in Australia and New Zealand medical schools. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 430–434

See the entire Respiratory intensive care Chapter