In order to evaluate whether there has been any progress since the publication of the first White Book, it is necessary to assess the policy landscape and what has happened in terms of policy in the past 10 years. This chapter attempts to identify key policy measures (recommendations, actions plans or strategies) that have been discussed and put in place by governments in Europe and at the global level in the past decade. We would stress that this chapter does not give specific policy recommendations for every individual respiratory disease. Rather, we focus on ‘horizontal’ policy measures that could improve the health of individuals with any of several respiratory diseases. Specific policy recommendations for particular disease areas are laid out in earlier chapters and in the ELF publications that complement this book.