Key points

  • Pulmonary embolism is common, difficult to diagnose and potentially very serious, with a fatality rate of 7–11%.
  • Several factors predisposing to pulmonary embolism are recognised and prophylactic treatment should be implemented more widely in those at risk.
  • Pulmonary hypertension may result from any of a range of causes or may be idiopathic. Although pharmacological treatment has improved, some forms still have a very poor prognosis.
  • Awareness of pulmonary hypertension needs to increase and its pathogenesis requires further research.

See the entire Pulmonary vascular disease Chapter