Further reading


  • Casaburi R, ZuWallack R. Pulmonary rehabilitation for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1329–1335.
  • Marciniuk DD, Brooks D, Butcher S, et al . Optimizing pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – practical issues: a Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Can Respir J 2010; 17: 159–168.
  • Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E, et al. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 1390–1413.
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation. In: An international comparison of COPD care in Europe.Results of the first European audit. Lausanne, European Respiratory Society , 2012; pp. 46–52.
  • Ries AL, Bauldoff GS, Carlin BW, et al . Pulmonary rehabilitation. Joint ACCP/AACVPR Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2007; 131: Suppl. 5, 4S–42S.Location
  • Clini E, Foglio K, Bianchi L, et al . In-hospital short-term training program in patients with chronic airway obstruction (CAO). Chest 2001; 120: 1500–1505.
  • Maltais F, Bourbeau J, Shapiro S, et al . Effects of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149: 869–878.Nutrition
  • Ferreira IM, Brooks D, Lacasse Y, et al . Nutritional supplementation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2: CD000998.Respiratory muscle training
  • Gosselink R, De Vos J, van den Heuvel SP, et al . Impact of inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: what is the evidence? Eur Respir J 2011; 32: 416–425.
  • Vogiatzis I. Strategies of muscle training in very severe COPD patients. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 971–975.Tele-assistance
  • McLean S, Nurmatov U, Liu JL, et al. Telehealthcare for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 6: CD007718.ICU physiotherapy
  • Ambrosino N, Venturelli E, Vagheggini G, et al . Rehabilitation, weaning and physical therapy strategies in chronic critically ill patients. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 487–492.
  • Gosselink R, Bott J, Johnson M, et al . Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 1188–1199.Acute COPD exacerbations
  • Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Scharplatz M, et al . Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 10: CD005305.Maintenance• Spencer LM, Alison JA, McKeough ZJ. Maintaining benefits following pulmonary rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 571–577.Outcomes
  • Janaudis-Ferreira T, Beauchamp MK, Goldstein RS, et al. How should we measure arm exercise capacity in patients with COPD? A systematic review. Chest 2012; 141: 111–112.
  • Lacasse Y, Goldstein R, Lasserson TJ, et al . Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 18: CD003793.New strategies
  • Ambrosino N, Strambi S. New strategies to improve exercise tolerance in COPD. Eur Respir J 2004: 24: 313–322.
  • Vivodtzev I, Debigaré R, Gagnon P, et al . Functional and muscular effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with severe COPD: a randomized clinical trial. Chest 2012; 141: 716–725.

See the entire Pulmonary rehabilitation Chapter