Like tobacco smoke, ambient air pollution is a well-established cause of morbidity and mortality. However, unlike smoking, air pollution is not a lifestyle choice but a ubiquitous involuntary environmental exposure, which can affect 100% of the population from the womb to death. Large parts of the European population continue to live in areas with unhealthy air quality. For some pollutants and in some regions, this situation is not improving and is even deteriorating. Changes in combustion and fuel technologies, industrial production, movement of goods and urban planning affect the constituents, and thus possibly the toxicity, of air pollution, in addition to the degree of exposure.