Further reading


  • Newman LS. Occupational illness. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1128–1134.

Inhalation injury

  • Palmieri TL, Enkhbaatar P, Sheridan R, et al. Studies of inhaled agents in inhalation injury. J Burn Care Res 2009; 30: 169–171.

Asthma and COPD

  • Balmes JR, Nowak D. COPD caused by occupational exposure. In: Donner CF, Carone M, eds. COPD. Oxford, Clinical Publishing, 2007; pp. 85–96.
  • Baur X, Bakehe P, Vellguth H, et al. Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace – an evidence-based approach. J Occup Med Toxicol 2012; 7: 19.
  • Vandenplas O. Occupational asthma: etiologies and risk factors. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2011; 3: 157–167.

Interstitial lung diseases and pneumoconiosis

  • Glazer CS, Newman LS. Occupational interstitial lung disease. Clin Chest Med 2004; 25: 467–478.


  • Ho PL, Becker M, Chan-Yeung MM. Emerging occupational lung infections. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007; 11: 710–721.

Lung cancer and mesothelioma

  • Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011; 103: 1827–1839.
  • Rice J. The global reorganization and revitalization of the asbestos industry, 1970–2007. Int J Health Serv 2011; 41: 239–254.
  • Tan E, Warren N, Darnton AJ, et al. Projection of mesothelioma mortality in Britain using Bayesian methods. Br J Cancer 2010; 103: 430–436.

Exposure levels

See the entire Occupational risk factors Chapter