Further reading


  • Driscoll T, Nelson DI, Steenland K, et al. The global burden of non-malignant respiratory disease due to occupational airborne exposures. Am J Ind Med 2005; 48: 432–445.
  • McDonald JC, Chen Y, Zekveld C, et al. Incidence by occupation and industry of acute work related respiratory diseases in the UK, 1992–2001. Occup Environ Med 2005; 62: 836–842.
  • Nemery B, Bast A, Behr J, et al. Interstitial lung disease induced by exogenous agents: factors governing susceptibility. Eur Respir J 2001; 18: Suppl. 32, 30s–42s.
  • Nurminen M, Karjalainen A. Epidemiologic estimate of the proportion of fatalities related to occupational factors in Finland. Scand J Work Environ Health 2001; 27: 161–213.
  • Ross DJ. Ten years of the SWORD project. Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29: 750–753.
  • Sigsgaard T, Nowak D, Annesi-Maesano I, et al. ERS position paper: work-relatedrespiratory diseases in the EU. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 234–238.


  • Ayres JG, Boyd R, Cowie H, et al. Costs of occupational asthma in the UK. Thorax 2011; 66: 128–133.
  • Baur X, Aasen TB, Burge PS, et al. The management of work-related asthma guidelines: a broader perspective. Eur Respir Rev 2012; 21: 125–139.
  • Baur X, Sigsgaard T, Aasen TB, et al. Guidelines for the management of work-related asthma. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 529–545.
  • Heederik D, Sigsgaard T. Epidemiology and risk factors of occupational respiratory asthma and occupational sensitization. In: Heederik D, Sigsgaard T, eds. Occupational Asthma. Basel, Birkhauser, 2010; pp. 17–33.
  • Henneberger PK, Mirabelli MC, Kogevinas M, et al. The occupational contribution to severe exacerbation of asthma. Eur Respir J 2010; 36: 743–750.
  • Toren K, Blanc PD. Asthma caused by occupational exposures is common – a systematic analysis of estimates of the population-attributable fraction. BMC Pulm Med 2009; 9: 7.


  • Blanc PD, Menezes AM, Plana E, et al. Occupational exposures and COPD: an ecological analysis of international data. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 298–304.

Lung cancer

  • Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 66: 1191–1308.
  • Driscoll T, Nelson DI, Steenland K, et al. The global burden of disease due to occupational carcinogens. Am J Ind Med 2005; 48: 419–431.
  • van Loon AJ, Kant IJ, Swaen GM, et al. Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54: 817–824.


  • Park EK, Takahashi K, Hoshuyama T, et al. Global magnitude of reported and unreported mesothelioma. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 514–518.
  • Peto J, Decarli A, La Vecchia C, et al. The European mesothelioma epidemic. Br J Cancer 1999; 79: 666–672.


  • Akgun M. Araz O, Akkurt I, et al. An epidemic of silicosis among former denim sandblasters. Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 1295–1303.
  • De Vuyst P, Camus P. The past and present of pneumoconioses. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000; 6: 151–156.
  • Graveland H, Duim B, van Duijkeren E, et al. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and humans. Int J Med Microbiol 2011; 301: 630–634.
  • Tjoe Nij E, Burdorf A, Parker J, et al. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust. Occup Environ Med 2003; 60: 410–417.

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

  • Bourke SJ, Dalphin JC, Boyd G, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: current concepts. Eur Respir J 2001; 18: Suppl. 32, 81s–92s.
  • Kern DG, Kuhn C 3rd, Ely EW, et al. Flock worker’s lung: broadening the spectrum of clinicopathology, narrowing the spectrum of suspected etiologies. Chest 2000; 117: 251–259.
  • Tillie-Leblond I, Grenouillet F, Reboux G, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and metalworking fluids contaminated by mycobacteria. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 640–647.

Respiratory infections

  • de Rooij MM, Schimmer B, Versteeg B, et al. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students. PLoS One 2012; 7: e32108.


  • Brusselaers N, Monstrey S, Vogelaers D, et al. Severe burn injury in Europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality. Crit Care 2010; 14: R188.
  • Camus P, Nemery B. A novel cause for bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: exposure to paint aerosols in textile workshops. Eur Respir J 1998; 11: 259–262.
  • Hubbard R, Lewis S, Richards K, et al. Occupational exposure to metal or wood dust and aetiology of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Lancet 1996; 347: 284–289.
  • Laumbach RJ, Kipen HM. Bioaerosols and sick building syndrome: particles, inflammation, and allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 5: 135–139.
  • Müller-Quernheim J, Gaede KE, Fireman E, et al. Diagnoses of chronic beryllium disease within cohorts of sarcoidosis patients. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 1190–1195.
  • Nemery B, Verbeken EK, Demedts M. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (hard metal lung disease, cobalt lung). Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 22: 435–448.

See the entire Occupational-lung-diseases Chapter