Further reading


  • Alberg AJ, Brock MV, Samet JM. Epidemiology of lung cancer: looking to the future. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 3175–3185.
  • Alberg AJ, Ford FG, Samet JM. Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 2007; 132: Suppl. 3, 29S–55S.
  • American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2011. www.cancer.org/research/ cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-figures-2011
  • European Union Public Health Information System. www.euphix.org/object_document/ o4588n27172.html
  • Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010; 127: 2893–2917.
  • Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v2.0. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer , 2010. globocan.iarc.fr/
  • Gatta G, Mallone S, van der Zwan JM, et al. Cancer prevalence estimates in Europe at the beginning of 2000. Ann Oncol 2013; 24: 1660–1666.
  • Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al., eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008. Bethesda, National Cancer Institute, 2011. seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide in 2008. globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/cancers/lung.asp
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Cancer incidence. In: Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators. www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/ health-at-a-glance-2011_health_glance-2011-en
  • Rosen G. A History of Public Health. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press , 1993.
  • Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developingcancer? The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer 2011; 105: 460–465.
  • Verdecchia A, Francisci S, Brenner H, et al. Recent cancer survival in Europe: a 2000–02period analysis of EUROCARE-4 data. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8: 784–796.
  • Wilking N, Högberg D, Jönsson B. Karolinska Institutet/i3 Innovus Benchmarking report oflung cancer care in selected European Countries. Stockholm, Comparator Reports, 2008. www.comparatorreports.se/Lung_cancer_benchmarking_080526.pdf
  • World Health Organization. Cancer. Fact sheet No. 297. Reviewed January 2013. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/

Causes and prevention

  • Bennett WP, William P, Alavanja MCR, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 2009–2014.
  • Goodman P, Agnew M, McCaffrey M, et al. Effects of the Irish smoking ban on respiratory health of bar workers and air quality in Dublin pubs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 175: 840–845.
  • Gray A, Read S, McGale P, et al. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them. BMJ 2009; 338: a3110.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention Vol. 11. Tobacco Control: Reversal of Risk after Quitting Smoking. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2007.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 83: Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2004.
  • Kaufman EL, Jacobson JS, Hershman DL, et al. Effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and cigarette smoking on risk of second primary lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 392–398.
  • Kramer BS, Berg CD, Aberle DR, et al. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 395–409.
  • Park RM, Bena JF, Stayner LT, et al. Hexavalent chromium and lung cancer in the chromate industry: a quantitative risk assessment. Risk Anal 2004; 24: 1099–1108.
  • Purdue MP, Gold L, Jarvholm B, et al. Impaired lung function and lung cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish construction workers. Thorax 2007; 62: 51–56.
  • Putila JJ, Guo NL. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States. PLoS ON E 2011; 6: e25886.
  • Samet JM. Does idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis increase lung cancer risk? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: 1–2.
  • Schubauer-Berigan MK, Deddens JA, Couch JR, et al. Risk of lung cancer associated with quantitative beryllium exposure metrics within an occupational cohort. Occup Environ Med 2011; 68: 354–360.
  • Schwartz AG. Genetic predisposition to lung cancer. Chest 2004; 125: Suppl. 5, 86S–89S.
  • Thun MJ, Hannan LM, Adams-Campbell LL, et al. Lung cancer occurrence in never-smokers: an analysis of 13 cohorts and 22 cancer registry studies. PLoS Med 2008; 5: e185.
  • Travis LB, Gospodarowicz M, Curtis RE, et al. Lung cancer following chemotherapy andradiotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94: 182–192.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. 2010 Surgeon General’s Report – HowTobacco Smoke Causes Disease: the Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking- Attributable Disease. Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. www.cdc. gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2010/index.htm


  • Bennett VA, Davies EA, Jack RH, et al. Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socioeconomic deprivation in South East England. BMC Cancer 2008; 8: 139.
  • Brunelli A, Charloux A, Bolliger CT, et al. ERS/ESTS clinical guidelines on fitness for radical therapy in lung cancer patients (surgery and chemo-radiotherapy). Eur Respir J 2009; 34: 17–41.
  • Detterbeck FC, Boffa DJ, Tamoue LT. The new lung cancer staging system. Chest 2009; 136: 260–271.
  • Ebbert JO, Chhatwani L, Aubry MC, et al. Clinical features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with new histologic and staging definitions. J Thorac Oncol 2010; 5: 1213–1220.
  • Holmberg L, Sandin F, Bray F, et al. National comparisons of lung cancer survival in England, Norway and Sweden 2001-2004: differences occur early in follow-up. Thorax 2010; 65: 436–441.
  • Hopwood P, Stephens RJ. Depression in patients with lung cancer: prevalence and risk factors derived from quality-of-life data. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 893–903.
  • International Union against Cancer (UICC). TNM Classification of malignant tumours. 7th Edn. Hoboken, UICC–Wiley Blackwell, 2010.
  • Navani N, Spiro SG. Symptoms and signs of lung cancer. In: Spiro SG, Huber RM, Janes SM, eds. Thoracic Malignancies. Eur Respir Monogr 2009; 44: 71–87.
  • Scagliotti GV. Symptoms, signs and staging of lung cancer. In: Spiro SG, ed. Lung Cancer. Eur Respir Monogr 2001; 17: 86–119.
  • Sculier J-P. Staging of lung cancer. In: Spiro SG, Huber RM, Janes SM, eds. Thoracic Malignancies. Eur Respir Monogr 2009; 44: 150-168.
  • Spiro SG, Gould MK, Colice GL. Initial evaluation of the patient with lung cancer: symptoms, signs, laboratory tests and paraneoplastic syndromes: ACCP evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 2007; 132: 149–160.
  • Travis WD, Brambilla E, Noguchi M, et al. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol 2011; 6: 244–285.


  • Deslauriers J. Pneumonectomy versus sleeve resection for the management of resectable lung cancer: M07-01. J Thorac Oncol 2007; 2: 169–170.
  • Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 947–957.
  • Ng CS, Lee TW, Wan S, et al. Thoracotomy is associated with significantly more profound suppression in lymphocytes and natural killer cells than video-assisted thoracic surgery following major lung resections for cancer. J Invest Surg 2005; 18: 81–88.
  • Ohtsuka T, Nomori H, Horio H, et al. Is major pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracic surgery an adequate procedure in clinical stage I lung cancer? Chest 2004; 125: 1742–1746.
  • Ping A, Yim C. VATS major lung resection. Biomed Imaging Interv J 2007; 3: e12–e97.
  • Yamamoto K, Miyamoto Y, Ohsumi A, et al. Sleeve lung resection for lung cancer: analysisaccording to the type of procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 136: 1349–1356.

See the entire Lung Cancer Chapter