Further reading

Indoor air pollution and health effects

  • Annesi-Maesano I, Agabiti N, Pistelli R, et al. Subpopulations at increased risk of adverse health outcomes from air pollution. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: Suppl. 40, 57s–63s.
  • Annesi-Maesano I, Hulin M, Lavaud F, et al. Poor air quality in classrooms related to asthma and rhinitis in primary schoolchildren of the French 6 Cities Study. Thorax 2012; 67: 682–688.
  • Cai GH, Hashim JH, Hashim Z, et al. Fungal DNA, allergens, mycotoxins and associations with asthmatic symptoms among pupils in schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 290–297.
  • European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations. Towards Healthy Air in Dwellings in Europe. The THADE Report. Brussels, European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations, 2004. www.efanet.org/wp-content/ uploads/2012/07/THADEReport.pdf

Indoor air quality in schools

  • Heinrich J. Influence of indoor factors in dwellings on the development of childhood asthma. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2011; 214: 1–25.
  • Hulin M, Simoni M, Viegi G, et al. Respiratory health and indoor air pollutants based on quantitative exposure assessments. Eur Respir J 2012; 40: 1033–1045.
  • Kim JL, Elfman L, Mi Y, et al. Indoor molds, bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds and plasticizers in school – associations with asthma and respiratory symptoms in pupils. Indoor Air 2007; 17: 153–163.
  • Maio S, Simoni M, Baldacci S, et al. Indoor air pollution and airway disease. In: Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Rosenwasser LJ, eds. Allergy Frontiers: Epigenetic, Allergens and Risk Factors. Vol.1. Tokyo, Springer, 2009; pp. 387–401.
  • Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks. Opinion on Risk Assessment on Indoor Air Quality. Brussels, European Commission, 2007.
  • Simoni M, Annesi-Maesano I, Sigsgaard T, et al. School air quality related to dry cough, rhinitis, and nasal patency in children. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 742–749.
  • Simoni M, Cai GH, Norback D, et al. Total viable molds and fungal DNA in classrooms and association with respiratory health and pulmonary function of European schoolchildren. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 843–852.
  • Viegi G, Simoni M, Scognamiglio A, et al. Indoor air pollution and airway disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8: 1401–1415.


  • Kurmi OP, Semple S, Simkhada P, et al. COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax 2010; 65: 221–228.
  • Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380: 2224–2260.
  • Po JY, FitzGerald JM, Carlsten C. Respiratory disease associated with solid biomass fuel exposure in rural women and children: systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax 2011; 66: 232–239.
  • Torres-Duque C, Maldonado D, Pérez-Padilla R, et al. Biomass fuels and respiratory diseases: a review of the evidence. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008; 5: 577–590.
  • Zhang JJ, Smith KR. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions. Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115: 848–855.

Nitrogen dioxide

  • Esplugues A, Ballester F, Estarlich M, et al. Indoor and outdoor concentrations and determinants of NO2 in a cohort of 1-year-old children in Valencia, Spain. Indoor Air 2010; 20: 213–223.

Volatile organic compounds

  • Billionnet C, Gay E, Kirchner S, et al. Quantitative assessments of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in a population-based sample of French dwellings. Environ Res 2011; 111: 425–434.
  • McGwin G, Lienert J, Kennedy JI. Formaldehyde exposure and asthma in children: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118: 313–317.
  • Mendell MJ. Indoor residential chemical emissions as risk factors for respiratory and allergic effects in children: a review. Indoor Air 2007; 17: 259–277.


  • Hulin M, Moularat S, Kirchner S, et al. Positive associations between respiratory outcomes and fungal index in rural inhabitants of a representative sample of French dwellings. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2013; 216: 155–162.
  • Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, et al. Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 748–756.


  • Samet JM, Avila-Tang E, Boffetta P, et al. Lung cancer in never smokers: clinical epidemiology and environmental risk factors. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 5626–5645.
  • Schmid K, Kuwert T, Drexler H. Radon in indoor spaces: an underestimated risk factor for lung cancer in environmental medicine. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107: 181–186.

Pet allergen

  • Gent JF, Kezik JM, Hill ME, et al. Household mold and dust allergens: exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Environ Res 2012; 118: 86–93.
  • Kelly LA, Erwin EA, Platts-Mills TA. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2012; 18: 29–34.
  • Lødrup Carlsen KC, Roll S, Carlsen KH, et al. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts. PLoS One 2012; 7: e43214.
  • Lombardi E, Simoni M, La Grutta S, et al. Effects of pet exposure in the first year of life on respiratory and allergic symptoms in 7-yr-old children. The SIDRIA-2 study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010; 21: 268–276.

Combined effects

  • Agrawal S. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey. J Asthma 2012; 49: 355–365.
  • Carlsten C, Brauer M, Dimich-Ward H, et al. Combined exposure to dog and indoor pollution: incident asthma in a high-risk birth cohort. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 324–330.

Prevention and intervention

  • Crocker DD, Kinyota S, Dumitru GG, et al. Effectiveness of home-based, multi-trigger, multi-component interventions with an environmental focus for reducing asthma morbidity: a community guide systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2011; 41: Suppl. 1, S5–S32.
  • Howden-Chapman P, Pierse N, Nicholls S, et al. Effects of improved home heating on asthma in community dwelling children: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008; 337: a1411.
  • Laurendi G, Mele S, Centanni S, et al. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities. Respir Med 2012; 106: 1–8.
  • Sheehan WJ, Rangsithienchai PA, Wood RA, et al. Pest and allergen exposure and abatement in inner-city asthma: a work group report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergy/Air Pollution Committee. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 125: 575–581.
  • Smith-Sivertsen T, Díaz E, Pope D, et al. Effect of reducing indoor air pollution on women’s respiratory symptoms and lung function: the RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 170: 211–220.
  • Sundell J, Levin H, Nazaroff WW, et al. Ventilation rates and health: multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature. Indoor Air 2011; 21: 191–204.

See the entire Indoor environment Chapter