Further reading

  • Greenough A, Milner AD. Chronic lung disease. In : Rennie JM, Roberton NRC. Texbook of Neonatology. 4th Edn. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 2005; pp. 448–467.
  • Hallam M, Marttila R, Pertile R, et al. Genes and environment in common neonatal lung disease. Neonatology 2007; 91: 298–302.
  • Narang I, Bush A. Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2012; 17: 112–118.

Abnormal antenatal lung growth

  • Greenough A, Shaheen SO, Shennan A, et al. Respiratory outcomes in early childhood following antenatal vitamin C and E supplementation. Thorax 2010; 65: 998–1003.
  • Greenough A, Yuksel B, Naik S, et al. First trimester invasive procedures: effects on symptom status and lung volume in very young children. Pediatr Pulmonol 1997; 24: 415–422.

Low birthweight

  • Barker DJ, Godfrey KM, Fall C, et al. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. BMJ 1991; 303: 671–675.

Prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  • Baraldi E, Filippone M. Chronic lung disease after premature birth. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1946–1955.
  • Jobe AH, Bancalari E. NICHD/NHLSI/ORD Workshop Summary. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 1723–1729.
  • Jobe AH. The new BPD: an arrest of lung development. Pediatr Res 1999; 46: 641–643.
  • Kinsella JP, Greenough A, Abman SH. Chronic lung disease of prematurity (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Lancet 2006; 367: 1421–1431.
  • Peacock, JL, Lo JW, D’Costa W, et al. Respiratory morbidity at follow-up of small-for- gestational age infants born very prematurely. Pediatr Res 2012 [In press DOI: 10.1038/pr.2012.201].
  • Van Marter LJ, Ammann O, Allred EN, et al. Chorioamnionitis, mechanical ventilation and postnatal sepsis as modulators of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2002; 140: 171–176.

Tobacco smoke exposure

  • Cook DG, Strachan DP, Carey IM. Health effects of passive smoking. Parental smoking and spirometric indices in children. Thorax 1998; 53: 884–893.
  • Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Li YF, et al. Effects of early onset asthma and in utero exposure to maternal smoking on childhood lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 917–924.
  • Jones LL, Hashim A, McKeever, et al. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systemic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res 2011; 12: 5.
  • Kwok MK, Schooling CM, Ho LM, et al. Early life second-hand smoke exposure and serious infectious morbidity during the first 8 years: evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Tob Control 2008; 17: 263–370.
  • Landau LI. Tobacco smoke exposure and tracking of lung function into adult life. Paediatr Respir Rev 2008; 9: 39–44.
  • Milner AD, Rao H, Greenough A. The effects of antenatal smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms in infants and children. Early Hum Dev 2007; 83: 707–711.
  • Taylor B, Wadsworth J. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract illness in early life. Arch Dis Child 1987; 62: 786–791.

Viral infections in infancy

  • Barker DJ, Godfrey KM, Fall C, et al. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. BMJ 1991; 303: 671–675.
  • Ermers MJ, Jansen RJ, Onland-Moret NC, et al. IL10 family member genes IL19 and IL20 are associated with recurrent wheeze after respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Res 2011; 70: 518–523.
  • Gern JE. Rhinovirus and the initiation of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 9: 73–78.
  • Greenough A, Alexander J, Boit P, et al. School age outcome of hospitalisation with respiratory syncytial virus infection of prematurely born infants. Thorax 2009; 64: 490–495.
  • Greenough A, Broughton S. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: outcome, management and prevention. Infant 2005; 1: 14–17.
  • Jackson DJ, Evans MD, Gangnon RE, et al. Evidence for a causal relationship between allergic sensitization and rhinovirus wheezing in early life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 185: 281–285.
  • Kusel M, de Klerk N, Kebadze T, et al. Early life respiratory viral infections, atopic sensitization and risk of subsequent development of persistent asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 1105–1110.
  • Stein RT, Sherrill D, Morgan WJ, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years. Lancet 1999; 354: 541–545.

Wheezy bronchitis

  • Edwards CA, Osman LM, Godden DJ, et al. Wheezy bronchitis in childhood: a distinct clinical entity with lifelong significance? Chest 2003; 124: 18–24.

See the entire Early-life events Chapter