Further reading

Overview and definition

  • Celli B, MacNee W, Agusti A, et al. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J 2004; 23: 932–946.
  • Gulsvik A. The global burden and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease worldwide. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2001; 56: 261–264.
  • The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global Strategy for Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD. Updated February 2013. www.goldcopd. org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_Report_2013_Feb20.pdf
  • Soriano JB, Rodriguez-Roisin R. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overview. Epidemiology, risk factors and clinical presentation. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2011; 8: 363–367.
  • Vestbo J, Edwards LD, Scanlon PD, et al. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 1184–1192.
  • Viegi G, Pistelli F, Sherill DL, et al. Definition, epidemiology and natural history of COPD. Eur Respir J 2007; 30: 993–1013.

Prevalence and incidence

  • Løkke A, Lange P, Scharling H, et al. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population. Thorax 2006; 61: 935–939.
  • Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet 2007; 370: 741–750.
  • Johannessen A, Omenaas E, Bakke P, et al. Incidence of GOLD-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a general adult population. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9: 926–932.
  • Lindberg A, Jonsson AC, Rönmark E, et al. Ten-year cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors for incidence of disease in a symptomatic cohort. Chest 2005; 127: 1544–1552.
  • Soriano JB, Ancochea J, Miravitlles M, et al. Recent trends in COPD prevalence in Spain: a repeated cross-sectional survey 1997-2007. Eur Respir J 2010; 36: 758–765.

Risk factors

  • Balmes J, Becklake M, Blanc P, et al. Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 787–797.
  • Eide GE. Attributable fractions for partitioning risk and evaluating disease prevention: a practical guide. Clin Respir J 2008; 2: 92–103.
  • Johannessen A, Eagan TM, Omenaas ER, et al. Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population. Eur Respir J 2010; 36: 480–487.
  • Lundbäck B, Lindberg A, Lindström M, et al. Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD? – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies. Respir Med 2003; 97: 115–122.
  • Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, et al. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 2011; 377: 139–146.
  • Silverman EK, Spira A, Paré PD. Genetics and genomics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2009; 6: 539–542.
  • Svanes C, Sunyer J, Plana E, et al. Early life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2010; 65: 14–20.
  • Viegi G, Maio S, Pistelli F, et al. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: health effects of air pollution. Respirology 2006; 11: 523–532.


  • Burtin C, Decramer M, Gosselink R, et al. Rehabilitation and acute exacerbations. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 702–712.
  • Agusti A, Sobradillo P, Celli B. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 1129–1137.
  • Dong YH, Lin HH, Shau WY, et al. Comparative safety of inhaled medications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Thorax 2013; 68: 48–56.
  • Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013; 187: 347–365. Comorbidity, exacerbations and mortality
  • Barnes PJ, Celli BR. Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 1165–1185.
  • Frostad A, Søyseth V, Andersen A, et al. Respiratory symptoms as predictors of all-cause mortality in an urban community: a 30-year follow-up. J Intern Med 2006; 259: 520–529.
  • Geelhoed EA, Brameld KJ, Holman CD, et al. Readmission and survival following hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: long-term trends. Intern Med J 2007: 37: 87–94.
  • Hurst JR, Vestbo J, Anzueto A, et al. Susceptibility of exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 1128–1138.
  • Jensen HH, Godtfredsen NS, Lange P, et al. Potential misclassification of causes of death from COPD. Eur Respir J 2006; 28: 781–785.
  • Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006; 3: e442.

Future challenges

  • Bakke PS, Rönmark E, Eagen T, et al. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 1261–1277.
  • Han MK, Agusti A, Calverley PM, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes: the future of COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182: 598–604.

See the entire Obstructive pulmonary disease Chapter