Further reading



  • Asher MI, Montefort S, Bjorksten B, et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet 2006; 368: 733–743.
  • Bergstrom SE, Boman G, Eriksson L, et al. Asthma mortality among Swedish children and young adults, a 10-year study. Respir Med 2008; 102: 1335–1341.
  • Chatenoud L, Malvezzi M, Pitrelli A, et al. Asthma mortality and long-acting β2-agonists in five major European countries, 1994–2004. J Asthma 2009; 46: 546–551.
  • International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Worldwide variations in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 315–335.
  • Jonasson G, Lodrup Carlsen KC, Leegaard J, et al. Trends in hospital admissions for childhood asthma in Oslo, Norway, 1980-95. Allergy 2000; 55: 232–239.
  • Lai CK, Beasley R, Crane J, et al. Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: phase three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2009; 64: 476–483.
  • Lang A, Carlsen KH, Haaland G, et al. Severe asthma in childhood: assessed in 10 year olds in a birth cohort study. Allergy 2008; 63: 1054–1060.
  • Lodrup Carlsen KC, Haland G, Devulapalli CS, et al. Asthma in every fifth child in Oslo, Norway: a 10-year follow up of a birth cohort study. Allergy 2006; 61: 454–460.
  • To T, Wang C, Guan J, et al. What is the lifetime risk of physician-diagnosed asthma in Ontario, Canada? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181: 337–343.
  • Wennergren G, Strannegard IL. Asthma hospitalizations continue to decrease in schoolchildren but hospitalization rates for wheezing illnesses remain high in young children. Acta Paediatrica 2002; 91: 1239–1245.


  • Lau S, Illi S, Platts-Mills TA, et al. Longitudinal study on the relationship between cat allergen and endotoxin exposure, sensitization, cat-specific IgG and development of asthma in childhood – report of the German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS 90). Allergy 2005; 60: 766–773.
  • Miller RL, Ho SM. Environmental epigenetics and asthma: current concepts and call for studies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177: 567–573.
  • Ober C, Hoffjan S. Asthma genetics 2006: the long and winding road to gene discovery. Genes Immun 2006; 7: 95–100.
  • Perez L, Declercq C, Iñiguez C, et al. Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network). Eur Respir J 2013 [In press DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00031112].
  • Sigurs N, Gustafsson PM, Bjarnason R, et al. Severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy and asthma and allergy at age 13. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 137–141.


  • Lodrup Carlsen KC, Hedlin G, Bush A, et al. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 432–440.


  • Goksor E, Amark M, Alm B, et al. Asthma symptoms in early childhood – what happens then? Acta Paediatrica 2006; 95: 471–478.
  • Svanes C, Sunyer J, Plana E, et al. Early life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2010; 65: 14–20.

See the entire Childhood asthma Chapter