Further reading


  • Decramer M, Sibille Y, eds. The European Respiratory Roadmap. Lausanne, European Respiratory Society, 2011.
  • Schluger NW. Acute Respiratory Infections Atlas. New York, World Lung Foundation, 2010.
  • Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S, et al. Guidelines for the management of adult lowerrespiratory tract infections – full version. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: Suppl. 6, E1–E59.


  • Amato-Gauci A, Zucs P, Snacken R, et al. Surveillance trends of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Europe. Euro Surveill 2011; 16: 1–11.
  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The 2009 A(H1N1) Pandemic in Europe: a Review of the Experience. Stockholm, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2010. ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/101108_SPR_pandemic_ experience.pdf
  • Fleming DM, Elliot AJ. Lessons from 40 years’ surveillance of influenza in England and Wales. Epidemiol Infect 2008; 136: 866–875.
  • Nair H, Brooks WA, Katz M, et al. Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2011; 378: 1917–1930.

Community-acquired pneumonia

  • Aliberti S, Blasi F. Clinical stability versus clinical failure in patients with community- acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 33: 284–291.
  • Ewig S, Torres A. Community-acquired pneumonia as an emergency: time for an aggressive intervention to lower mortality. Eur Respir J 2011; 38: 253–260.
  • Waterer GW, Rello J, Wunderink RG. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 157–164.
  • Welte T, Torres A. Nathwani D. Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Europe. Thorax 2012; 67: 71–79.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia

  • American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare- associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 388–416.
  • Torres A, Ewig S, Lode H, et al. Defining, treating and preventing hospital-acquired pneumonia: European perspective. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35: 9–29.
  • Torres A, Ferrer M, Badia JR. Treatment guidelines and outcomes of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: Suppl. 1, S48–S53.

Infections in the immunocompromised

  • Benito N, Moreno A, Miro JM, et al. Pulmonary infections in HIV-infected patients: an update in the 21st century. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 730–745.
  • Vento S, Cainelli F, Temesgen Z. Lung infections after cancer chemotherapy. Lancet Oncol 2008; 9: 982–992.

See the entire Acute lower respiratory infections Chapter