Further reading

Smoking epidemiology

Diseases associated with smoking

  • Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, et al. Mortality from cancer in relation to smoking: 50 years observations on British doctors. Br J Cancer 2005; 14: 426–429.
  • Fowles JE, Dybing E. Application of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke. Tob Control 2003;12: 424 –430
  • GHK. A Study on Liability and the Health Costs of Smoking. DG SANCO (2008/C6/046). Updated Final Report, April 2012. ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/docs/tobacco_liability_final_ en.pdf
  • Peto R, Lopez A, Boreham J, et al. Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950– 2000. 2nd Edn. New York, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Pirie K, Peto R, Reeves GK, et al. The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet 2013; 381: 133–141.
  • Schroeder SA. New evidence that cigarette smoking remains the most important health hazard. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 389–390.
  • Thun MJ, Carter BD, Feskanich D, et al. 50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 351–364.

Nicotine addiction

  • Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine: implications for understanding, preventing, and treating tobacco addiction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 83: 531–541.
  • US Dept of Health and Human Services. Nicotine Addiction. A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, US Dept of Health and Human Services, 1998.

The benefits of quitting smoking

  • Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Murray RP. Smoking and lung function of Lung Health Study participants after 11 years. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 675–679.
  • Anthonisen NR, Skeans MA, Wise RA, et al. The effects of a smoking cessation intervention on 14.5-year mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 233–239.

Smoking cessation

  • EQUIPP: Europe Quitting: Progress and Pathways. London, Bridgehead International, 2011. www.ensp.org/sites/default/files/uploads/EQUIPP_report.pdf
  • Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; CD006103.
  • Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline. Treating Tobacco use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Rockville, US Dept of Health and Human Services, 2008.
  • Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 341–350.
  • Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; CD000146.
  • Strassmann R, Bausch B, Spaar A, et al. Smoking cessation interventions in COPD: a network meta-analysis of randomised trials. Eur Respir J 2009; 34: 634–640.
  • Tønnesen P, Carrozzi L, Fagerström KO, et al. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy. Eur Respir J 2007; 29: 390–417.

Cost-effectivenes of smoking cessation

  • Cromwell J, Bartosch WJ, Fiore MC, et al. Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation. JAMA 1997; 278: 1759–1766.
  • NHS Centre for Reviews & Dissemination. A Rapid and Systematic Review of the Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Bupropion SR and Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) for Smoking Cessation. York, NHS Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, 2002.
  • Parrott S, Godfrey C, Raw M, et al. Guidance for commissioners on the cost effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. Thorax 1998; 53: Suppl. 5, S1–S38.

Anti-tobacco legislation

  • Association of European Cancer Leagues. The Tobacco Control Scale 2010 in Europe. Brussels, Association of European Cancer Leagues, 2011. www.europeancancerleagues. org/images/stories/The_TCS_2010_in_Europe_Final_4.pdf
  • Chaloupka FJ, Yurekli A, Fong GT. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy. Tob Control 2012; 21: 172–180.
  • Chen J, Millar WJ. Age of smoking initiation: implications for quitting. Health Rep 1998; 9: 39–49.
  • Currie L, Townsend J, Leon Roux M, et al. Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe. Policy Recommendations for Tobacco Taxation in the European Union. Dublin, TobaccoFree Research Institute, 2012. www.ppacte.eu/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_ download&gid=194&Itemid=29
  • DiFranza JR. Which interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors can be expected to reduce smoking? Tob Control 2012; 21: 436–442.
  • Kemp FB. Smoke free policies in Europe. An overview. Pneumologia 2009; 58: 155–158.
  • McRobbie H, Raw M, Chan S. Research priorities for Article 14 – demand reduction measures concerning tobacco dependence and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 2013; 15: 805–816.
  • Raw M. Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 14 guidelines: a new era for tobacco dependence treatment. Addiction 2011; 106: 2055–2057.
  • US Dept of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994.
  • World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003. whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241591013.pdf

See the entire Tabacco smoking Chapter