Further reading

Pulmonary embolism

  • Anderson FA Jr, Spencer FA. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Circulation 2003; 107: 9–16.
  • Fedullo PF, Auger WR, Kerr KM, et al. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1465–1472.
  • Pengo V, Lensing AW, Prins MH, et al. Incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2257–2264.
  • Pepke-Zaba J, Delcroix M, Lang I, et al. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): results from an international prospective registry. Circulation 2011; 124: 1973– 1981.
  • Torbicki A, Perrier A, Konstantinides S, et al. Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 2276–2315.
  • Lapa M, Dias B, Jardim C, et al. Cardio-pulmonary manifestations of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Circulation 2009; 119: 1518–1523.
  • Penaloza D, Arias-Stella J. The heart and pulmonary circulation at high altitudes: healthy highlanders and chronic mountain sickness. Circulation 2007; 115: 1132–1146.
  • Simonneau G, Robbins I, Beghetti M, et al. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54: S43–S54.

Pulmonary hypertension: causes and associated diseases

  • Abenhaim L, Moride Y, Brenot F, et al. Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 609–616.
  • Chaouat A, Naeije R, Weitzenblum E. Pulmonary hypertension in COPD. Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 1371–1385.
  • Condliffe R, Kiely DG, Peacock AJ, et al. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension in the modern treatment era. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 179: 151–157.

Pulmonary hypertension: epidemiology

  • D’Alonzo GE, Barst RJ, Ayres SM, et al. Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Ann Int Med 1991; 115: 343–349.
  • Humbert M, Sitbon O, Chaouat A, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in France: results from a national registry. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 1023–1030.
  • Humbert M, Sitbon O, Yaici A, et al. Survival in incident and prevalent cohorts of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir J 2010; 36: 549–555.
  • Rich S, Dantzker DR, Ayres SM, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension: a national prospective study. Ann Int Med 1987; 107: 216–223.

Pulmonary hypertension: treatment

  • Galiè N, Hoeper MM, Humbert M, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J 2009; 34:1219–1263.
  • Humbert M, Sitbon O, Simonneau G. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1425–1436.

See the entire Pulmonary vascular disease Chapter