Further Reading

Reviews and risk assessments

  • Eisner MD, Anthonisen N, Coultas D, et al. An official American Thoracic Society public policy statement: novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182: 693–718.
  • Götschi T, Heinrich J, Sunyer J, et al. Long-term effects of ambient air pollution on lung function: a review. Epidemiology 2008; 19: 690–701.
  • Gowers AM, Cullinan P, Ayres JG, et al. Does outdoor air pollution induce new cases of asthma? Biological plausibility and evidence: a review. Respirology 2012; 17: 887–898.
  • Jacquemin B, Schikowski T, Carsin AE, et al. The role of air pollution in adult-onset asthma - a review of the current evidence. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 33: 606–619.
  • Künzli N, Perez L, Rapp R. Air Quality and Health. Lausanne, European Respiratory Society, 2010. www.ersnet.org/airquality (in English, French, German, Italian, Turkish, and Catalan).
  • Pope CA 3rd, Dockery DW. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2006; 56: 709–742.
  • Schikowski T, Mills IC, Anderson HR, et al. Ambient air pollution: a cause for COPD? Eur Respir J 2013 [In press DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00100112].
  • World Health Organization. Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Global update 2005. WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH/06.02. 2005. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005.

Studies related to the figures

  • Beelen R, Hoek G, van den Brandt PA, et al. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study). Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 196–202.
  • Filleul L, Rondeau V, Vandentorren S, et al. Twenty five year mortality and air pollution: results from the French PAARC survey. Occup Environ Med 2005; 62: 453–460.
  • Gehring U, Heinrich J, Krämer U, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality in women. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 545–551.
  • Hazenkamp-von Arx ME, Schindler C, Ragettli MS, et al. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 2011; 10: 13.
  • Naess Ø, Nafstad P, Aamodt G, et al. Relation between concentration of air pollution and cause-specific mortality: four-year exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollutants in 470 neighborhoods in Oslo, Norway. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165: 435–443.
  • Nafstad P, Håheim LL, Wisløff T, et al. Urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Norwegian men. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112: 610–615.

Further studies on air pollution and respiratory health

  • Brandt SJ, Perez L, Künzli N, et al. Costs of childhood asthma due to traffic-related pollution in two California communities. Eur Respir J 2012; 40: 363–370.
  • Castro-Giner F, Künzli N, Jacquemin B, et al. Traffic-related air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and asthma (ECHRS). Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 1919–1924.
  • Curjuric I, Imboden M, Nadif R, et al. Different genes interact with particulate matter and tobacco smoke exposure in affecting lung function decline in the general population. PLoS One 2012; 7: e40175.
  • Downs SH, Schindler C, Liu LJ, et al. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 2338–2347.
  • Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, et al. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1057–1067.
  • Gehring U, Wijger AH, Brauer M, et al. Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181: 596–603.
  • Gilliland FD. Outdoor air pollution, genetic susceptibility, and asthma management: opportunities for intervention to reduce the burden of asthma. Pediatrics 2009; 123: Suppl. 3, S168–S173.
  • Imboden M, Schwartz J, Schindler C, et al. Decreased PM10 exposure attenuates age- related lung function decline: genetic variants in p53, p21, and CCND1 modify this effect. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 1420–1427.
  • Jacquemin B, Kauffmann F, Pin I, et al. Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma. J Epidemiol Community Health 2012; 66: 796–802.
  • Jacquemin B, Sunyer J, Forsberg B, et al. Association between modelled traffic-related air pollution and asthma score in the ECRHS. Eur Respir J 2009; 34: 834–842.
  • Künzli N, Bridevaux PO, Liu LJ, et al. Traffic-related air pollution correlates with adult-onset asthma among never-smokers. Thorax 2009; 64: 664–670.
  • Künzli N, Kaiser R, Medina S, et al. Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. Lancet 2000; 356: 795–801.
  • Nafstad P, Håheim LL, Oftedal B, et al. Lung cancer and air pollution: a 27 year follow up of 16 209 Norwegian men. Thorax 2003; 58: 1071–1076.
  • Perez L, Declercq C, Iñiguez C, et al. Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network). Eur Respir J 2013 [In press DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00031112].
  • Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, et al. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long- term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 2002; 287: 1132–1141.
  • Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hvidberg M, et al. Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 1284–1291.
  • Romieu I, Garcia-Esteban R, Sunyer J, et al. The effect of supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markers of oxidative stress in elderly exposed to PM2.5. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 1237–1242.
  • Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramírez-Aguilar M, et al. Genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and antioxidant supplementation influence lung function in relation to ozone exposure in asthmatic children in Mexico City. Thorax 2004; 59: 8–10.
  • Samoli E, Peng R, Ramsay T, et al. Acute effects of ambient particulate matter on mortality in Europe and North America: results from the APHENA study. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 1480–1486.
  • Schindler C, Keidel D, Gerbase MW, et al. Improvements in PM10 exposure and reduced rates of respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Swiss adults (SAPALDIA). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 179: 579–587.

See the entire Outdoor environment Chapter