Further reading

  • Accordini S, Corsico AG, Braggion M, et al. The cost of persistent asthma in Europe: an international population-based study in adults. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013; 160: 93–101.
  • Bousquet J, Mantzouranis E, Cruz AA, Aït-Khaled N, et al. Uniform definition of asthma severity, control, and exacerbations: document presented for the World Health Organization Consultation on Severe Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 126: 926–938.
  • Cazzoletti L, Marcon A, Janson C, et al. Asthma control in Europe: a real-world evaluation based on an international population-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 120: 1360–1367.
  • Chung KF, Godard P, Adelroth E, et al. Difficult/therapy-resistant asthma: the need for an integrated approach to define clinical phenotypes, evaluate risk factors, understand pathophysiology and find novel therapies. Eur Respir J 1999; 13: 1198–1208.
  • Haldar P, Pavord ID, Shaw DE, et al. Cluster analysis and clinical asthma phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 178: 218–224.
  • Kauppi P, Linna M, Martikainen J, et al. Follow-up of the Finnish Asthma Programme 2000- 2010: reduction of hospital burden needs risk group rethinking. Thorax 2013; 68: 292–293.
  • Priftanji AV, Qirko E, Layzell JC, et al. Asthma and allergy in Albania. Allergy 1999; 54: 1042–1047.
  • Reddel HK, Taylor DR, Bateman ED, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: asthma control and exacerbations: standardizing endpoints for clinical asthma trials and clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 180: 59–99.
  • Sigurkarlsson S, Clausen M, Gislason T, et al. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and use of asthma drugs are increasing among young adult Icelanders. Laeknabladid 2011; 97: 463–467.
  • Siroux V, Boudier A, Anto JM, et al. Quality-of-life and asthma-severity in general population asthmatics: results of the ECRHS II study. Allergy 2008; 63: 547–554.
  • Vermeire PA, Rabe KF, Soriano JB, et al. Asthma control and differences in management practices across seven European countries. Respir Med 2002; 96: 142–149.
  • Walsh LJ, Wong CA, Cooper S, et al. Morbidity from asthma in relation to regular treatment: a community based study. Thorax 1999; 54: 296–300.
  • Williams AE, Lloyd AC, Watson L. Cost of scheduled and unscheduled asthma management in seven European Union countries. Eur Respir Rev 2006; 15: 4–9.

See the entire Adult asthma Chapter