Further reading

Definition and diagnosis

  • Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, et al. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 1967; 2: 319–323.
  • Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, et al. The American–European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 149: 818–824.
  • Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin definition. JAMA 2012; 307: 2526–2533.


  • Rocco PR, Zin WA. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome: Are they different? Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11: 10–17.

Incidence and outcome

  • Brun-Buisson C, Minelli C, Bertolini G, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of acute lung injury in European intensive care units. Results from the ALIVE study. Intensive Care Med 2004; 30: 51–61.
  • Esteban A, Anzueto A, Frutos F, et al. Characteristics and outcomes in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a 28-day international study. JAMA 2002; 287: 345–355.
  • Herridge MS, Cheung AM, Tansey CM, et al. One-year outcomes in survivors of the acuterespiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 683–693.
  • Herridge MS, Tansey CM, Matte A, et al. Functional disability 5 years after acute respiratorydistress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1293–1304.
  • Pierrakos C, Vincent JL. The changing pattern of acute respiratory distress syndrome over time: a comparison of two periods. Eur Respir J 2012; 40: 589–595.
  • Reynolds HN, McCunn M, Borg U, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: estimated incidence and mortality rate in a 5 million-person population base. Crit Care 1998; 2: 29–34.
  • Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Peabody E, et al. Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1685–1693.
  • Wind J, Versteegt J, Twisk J, et al. Epidemiology of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the Netherlands: a survey. Respir Med 2007; 101: 2091–2098.

Treatment options

  • Abroug F, Ouanes-Besbes L, Dachraoui F, et al. An updated study-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on proning in ARDS and acute lung injury. Crit Care 2011; 15: R6.
  • Adhikari NK, Burns KE, Friedrich JO, et al. Effect of nitric oxide on oxygenation and mortality in acute lung injury: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007; 334: 779.
  • ARDSNet. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1301–1308.
  • Peek GJ, Mugford M, Tiruvoipati R, et al. Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 374: 1351–1363.
  • Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, et al. Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. JAMA 2011; 306: 1574–1581.
  • Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, et al. Initial trophic vs full enteral feeding in patients with acute lung injury: The EDEN randomized trial. JAMA 2012; 307: 795–803.
  • Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1368–1377.
  • Spragg RG, Lewis JF, Walmrath HD, et al. Effect of recombinant surfactant protein C-based surfactant on the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 884–892.
  • Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, et al. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2564–2575.

See the entire Acute respiratory distress syndrome Chapter